This part about "Exceptions" reminds me of the movement to create "safety valves" through equity within jurisprudence (law). There are all sorts of ways they are trying to create this. The baseline for it is modalities (much like computers move off them I believe).

Two leading professors in this movement that has quite the backing to it:

Henry Smith harvard law school


Paul Miller notre dame law school


"Equity as a Second-Order Law: The Problem of Opportunism"